Distribution of brain iron accrual in adolescence: Evidence from cross-sectional and longitudinal analysis.
To track iron accumulation and location in the brain across adolescence, we repurposed diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data acquired in 513 adolescents and validated iron estimates with quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) in 104 of these subjects. DTI and fMRI data were acquired longitudinally over 1 year in 245 male and 268 female, no-to-low alcohol-consuming adolescents (12-21 years at baseline) from the National Consortium on Alcohol and NeuroDevelopment in Adolescence (NCANDA) study. Brain region average signal values were calculated for susceptibility to nonheme iron deposition: pallidum, putamen, dentate nucleus, red nucleus, and substantia nigra. To estimate nonheme iron, the corpus callosum signal (robust to iron effects) was divided by regional signals to generate estimated R2 (edwR2 for DTI) and R2 * (eR2 * for fMRI). Longitudinal iron deposition was measured using the normalized signal change across time for each subject. Validation using baseline QSM, derived from susceptibility-weighted imaging, was performed on 46 male and 58 female participants. Normalized iron deposition estimates from DTI and fMRI correlated with age in most regions; both estimates indicated less iron in boys than girls. QSM results correlated highly with DTI and fMRI results (adjusted R2 = 0.643 for DTI, 0.578 for fMRI). Cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses indicated an initial rapid increase in iron, notably in the putamen and red nucleus, that slowed with age. DTI and fMRI data can be repurposed for identifying regional brain iron deposition in developing adolescents as validated with high correspondence with QSM.
Peterson, ET; Kwon, D; Luna, B; Larsen, B; Prouty, D; De Bellis, MD; Voyvodic, J; Liu, C; Li, W; Pohl, KM; Sullivan, EV; Pfefferbaum, A
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