The Initiation of Rehabilitation Therapies and Observed Outcomes in Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury.

Journal Article (Journal Article)


Pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI) is associated with immense physical, emotional, social, and economic burden. This study examined timing and frequency of rehabilitation services provided by the inpatient interdisciplinary team in children admitted for a TBI. Understanding the timing and frequency of rehabilitation services could guide TBI recovery.

Design and methods

This is a 3-year prospective observational study of previously healthy children (n = 35) admitted for a TBI to an urban Level 1 trauma hospital. Children with mild, moderate, and severe TBI were included. Initiation and frequency of the interdisciplinary rehabilitation team's care and neurocognitive-functional outcomes were analyzed. Outcome measures included the Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended Pediatrics and the Speech Pathology Neurocognitive-Functional Evaluation at hospital discharge and first follow-up visit.


The initiation and the frequency of rehabilitation services were found in all severities of TBI. Timing and frequency of services also aligned with varied severities. Children with moderate TBI showed the most improvement in Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended Pediatrics and the Speech Pathology Neurocognitive-Functional Evaluation on their first follow-up visit, whereas children with mild and severe TBI demonstrated little change in outcome at their first follow-up visit and had varied services based on their hospital course.


Services by interdisciplinary rehabilitation teams were provided across all brain injury severity groups, despite the lack of comprehensive rehabilitation guidelines. Varied neurocognitive and functional outcome changes measured found children with moderate TBI had the greatest change in outcomes. Further research is warranted to assess the timing and frequency of services and their relationship to neurocognitive-functional outcomes.

Full Text

Duke Authors

Cited Authors

  • Reuter-Rice, K; Eads, JK; Berndt, S; Doser, K

Published Date

  • November 2018

Published In

Volume / Issue

  • 43 / 6

Start / End Page

  • 327 - 334

PubMed ID

  • 30395558

Pubmed Central ID

  • PMC7301428

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 2048-7940

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

  • 0278-4807

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.1097/rnj.0000000000000116


  • eng