Preformed and de novo donor specific antibodies in visceral transplantation: long-term outcome with special reference to the liver.
Despite improvement in early outcome, rejection particularly chronic allograft enteropathy continues to be a major barrier to long-term visceral engraftment. The potential role of donor specific antibodies (DSA) was examined in 194 primary adult recipients. All underwent complement-dependent lymphocytotoxic crossmatch (CDC-XM) with pre- and posttransplant solid phase HLA-DSA assay in 156 (80%). Grafts were ABO-identical with random HLA-match. Liver was included in 71 (37%) allografts. Immunosuppression was tacrolimus-based with antilymphocyte recipient pretreatment in 150 (77%). CDC-XM was positive in 55 (28%). HLA-DSA was detectable before transplant in 49 (31%) recipients with 19 continuing to have circulating antibodies. Another 19 (18%) developed de novo DSA. Ninety percent of patients with preformed DSA harbored HLA Class-I whereas 74% of recipients with de novo antibodies had Class-II. Gender, age, ABO blood-type, cold ischemia, splenectomy and allograft type were significant DSA predictors. Preformed DSA significantly (p < 0.05) increased risk of acute rejection. Persistent and de novo HLA-DSA significantly (p < 0.001) increased risk of chronic rejection and associated graft loss. Inclusion of the liver was a significant predictor of better outcome (p = 0.004, HR = 0.347) with significant clearance of preformed antibodies (p = 0.04, OR = 56) and lower induction of de novo DSA (p = 0.07, OR = 24). Innovative multifaceted anti-DSA strategies are required to further improve long-term survival particularly of liver-free allografts.
Abu-Elmagd, KM; Wu, G; Costa, G; Lunz, J; Martin, L; Koritsky, DA; Murase, N; Irish, W; Zeevi, A
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