Incidence and risk factors associated with the development of cytomegalovirus disease after intestinal transplantation.
From May 1990 to March 1993, 38 patients (21 adults and 17 children) received 40 allografts that included the small bowel (14 isolated small bowel, 21 small bowel and liver, and 5 multivisceral transplantations). Fifteen patients (39%) had 26 episodes of CMV disease: 7 with one episode, 6 with two, and 1 each with three and four. CMV enteritis accounted for 21 (81%) of the episodes, hepatitis and pneumonitis for 2 each, and a viral syndrome for 1. Cox's proportional hazards univariate and multivariate analyses showed that significant first-episode risk factors were: CMV seropositive donors for negative recipients (relative risk [RR], 3.86; P = 0.02), the average daily plasma trough level of tacrolimus (RR, 2.15; P = 0.04), and total amount of steroid boluses (RR, 2.90; P = 0.02). CMV disease recurrence factors were: CMV seronegative recipients (RR, 8.60; P = 0.02) and total amount of steroid bolus pulses (RR, 12.39; P = 0.004). Because long courses of ganciclovir prophylaxis could not prevent the development of CMV disease, avoidance of CMV seropositive grafts in seronegative recipients and new strategies to prevent heavy immunosuppression without the penalty of rejection will be necessary to ameliorate this problem in intestinal transplant recipients.
Mañez, R; Kusne, S; Green, M; Abu-Elmagd, K; Irish, W; Reyes, J; Furukawa, H; Tzakis, A; Fung, JJ; Todo, S
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