Tacrolimus in pediatric renal transplantation.
Tacrolimus was used as the primary immunosuppressive agent in 69 pediatric renal transplantations between December 17, 1989, and June 30, 1995. Children undergoing concomitant or prior liver and/or intestinal transplantation were excluded from analysis. The mean recipient age was 10.3+/-5.0 years (range, 0.7-17.5 years). Seventeen (24.6%) children were undergoing retransplantation, and six (8.7%) had a panel reactive antibody level of 40% or higher. Thirty-nine (57%) cases were with cadaveric kidneys, and 30 (43%) were with living donors. The mean donor age was 28.0+/-14.7 years (range, 1.0-50.0 years), and the mean cold ischemia time for the cadaveric kidneys was 27.0+/-9.4 hr. The antigen match was 2.7+/-1.2, and the mismatch was 3.1+/-1.2. All patients received tacrolimus and steroids, without antibody induction, and 26% received azathioprine as well. The mean follow-up was 32+/-20 months. One- and 4-year actuarial patient survival rates were 100% and 95%. One- and 4-year actuarial graft survival rates were 99% and 85%. The mean serum creatinine level was 1.2+/-0.8 mg/dl, and the calculated creatinine clearance was 82+/-26 ml/min/1.73 m2. The mean tacrolimus dose was 0.22+/-0.14 mg/ kg/day, and the level was 9.5+/-4.8 ng/ml. The mean prednisone dose was 2.1+/-4.9 mg/day (0.07+/-0.17 mg/kg/day), and 73% of successfully transplanted children were off prednisone. Seventy-nine percent were not taking any antihypertensive medications. The mean serum cholesterol level was 158+/-54 mg/dl. The incidence of delayed graft function was 4.3%. The incidence of rejection was 49%, and the incidence of steroid-resistant rejection was 6%. The incidence of rejection decreased to 27% in the most recent 26 cases (January 1994 through June 1995). The incidence of new-onset diabetes was 10.1%; six of the seven affected children were able to be weaned off insulin. The incidence of cytomegalovirus disease was 13%, and that of posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder was 10%; the incidence of posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder in the last 40 transplants was 5% (two cases). All of the children who developed posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder are alive and have functioning allografts. Based on this data, we believe that tacrolimus is a superior immunosuppressive agent in pediatric renal transplant patients, with excellent short- and medium-term patient and graft survival, an ability to withdraw steroids in the majority of patients, and, with more experience, a decreasing rate of rejection and viral complications.
Shapiro, R; Scantlebury, VP; Jordan, ML; Vivas, C; Gritsch, HA; Ellis, D; Gilboa, N; Lombardozzi-Lane, S; Irish, W; Fung, JJ; Hakala, TR; Simmons, RL; Starzl, TE
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