Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI promotes early detection of toxin-induced acute kidney injury.
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common cause of morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients. Nevertheless, there is limited ability to diagnose AKI in its earliest stages through the collection of structural and functional information. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is increasingly being used to provide structural and functional data that characterize the injured kidney. Dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI is an imaging modality with robust spatial and temporal resolution; however, its ability to detect changes in kidney function following AKI has not been determined. We hypothesized that DCE MRI would detect a prolongation in contrast transit time following toxin-induced AKI earlier than commonly used serum and tissue biomarkers. To test our hypothesis, we injected mice with either vehicle or cisplatin (30 mg/kg) and performed DCE MRI at multiple time points. We found that commonly used kidney injury biomarkers, including creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, did not rise until day 2 following cisplatin. Tissue levels of the proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-1α, IL-6, C-C motif chemokine ligand 2, and C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 2 similarly did not upregulate until day 2 following cisplatin. However, the time to peak intensity of contrast in the renal collecting system was already prolonged at day 1 following cisplatin compared with vehicle-treated mice. This intensity change mirrored changes in kidney injury as measured by histological analysis and in transporter expression in the proximal tubule. Taken together, DCE MRI is a promising preclinical imaging modality that is useful for assessing functional capacity of the kidney in the earliest stages following AKI.
Privratsky, JR; Wang, N; Qi, Y; Ren, J; Morris, BT; Hunting, JC; Johnson, GA; Crowley, SD
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