Comparison of Outcomes and Frequency of Graft Failure With Use of Free Versus In Situ Internal Mammary Artery Bypass Conduits (from the PREVENT IV Trial).
Although in situ internal mammary artery (is-IMA) grafting remains the most frequent conduit in coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), circumstances may necessitate free grafting of the IMA (f-IMA), though differences in outcomes have not been fully characterized. The purpose of this study was to compare clinical and angiographic outcomes of is-IMA versus f-IMA coronary bypass grafts in patients who underwent elective CABG surgery. In 1,829 patients in the angiographic cohort of PREVENT IV, 1,572 (85.9%) had at least 1 IMA graft; of these, 34 (2.2%) patients had at least 1 f-IMA graft and 1,538 (97.8%) had at least 1 is-IMA graft without additional f-IMA grafts. Characteristics of patients, procedure, and grafts/targets were compared between cohorts. Primary endpoints included death, myocardial infarction, and revascularization, as well as incidence of graft failure (stenosis >75%) on angiography at 12-18 months postoperatively. Patients receiving is-IMA grafts were more often of white race and higher weight. Aortic cross-clamp time was shorter in the f-IMA cohort (39.5 vs 57.0 min, p = 0.04), but duration of bypass was similar (93.5 vs 100.0 minutes, p = 0.793). Of the in situ grafts, 97.3% were via the left internal mammary artery (LIMA), 86.6% were of good quality, and the left anterior descending (LAD) was bypassed in 88.2%. This compares with free grafts, which were via the LIMA in 68.0%, of good quality in 96.1%, and bypassed the LAD in 58.8% and first obtuse marginal (OM1) in 23.5%. Rates of death, myocardial infarction, and revascularization were similar between groups. The rate of graft failure was higher in f-IMA grafts (23.3%) compared with is-IMA grafts (8.5%; p < 0.01). Although clinical outcomes were similar with use of free versus in situ IMA grafts, higher rates of graft failure were encountered with use of the f-IMA graft. In conclusion, in situ grafts should be the preferred conduit for patients who undergo CABG surgery.
Ranney, DN; Williams, JB; Mulder, H; Wojdyla, D; Cox, ML; Gibson, CM; Mack, MJ; Daneshmand, MA; Alexander, JH; Lopes, RD
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