Mitochondrial Genome Variation Affects Multiple Respiration and Nonrespiration Phenotypes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
Mitochondrial genome variation and its effects on phenotypes have been widely analyzed in higher eukaryotes but less so in the model eukaryote Saccharomyces cerevisiae Here, we describe mitochondrial genome variation in 96 diverse S. cerevisiae strains and assess associations between mitochondrial genotype and phenotypes as well as nuclear-mitochondrial epistasis. We associate sensitivity to the ATP synthase inhibitor oligomycin with SNPs in the mitochondrially encoded ATP6 gene. We describe the use of iso-nuclear F1 pairs, the mitochondrial genome equivalent of reciprocal hemizygosity analysis, to identify and analyze mitochondrial genotype-dependent phenotypes. Using iso-nuclear F1 pairs, we analyze the oligomycin phenotype-ATP6 association and find extensive nuclear-mitochondrial epistasis. Similarly, in iso-nuclear F1 pairs, we identify many additional mitochondrial genotype-dependent respiration phenotypes, for which there was no association in the 96 strains, and again find extensive nuclear-mitochondrial epistasis that likely contributes to the lack of association in the 96 strains. Finally, in iso-nuclear F1 pairs, we identify novel mitochondrial genotype-dependent nonrespiration phenotypes: resistance to cycloheximide, ketoconazole, and copper. We discuss potential mechanisms and the implications of mitochondrial genotype and of nuclear-mitochondrial epistasis effects on respiratory and nonrespiratory quantitative traits.
Vijayraghavan, S; Kozmin, SG; Strope, PK; Skelly, DA; Lin, Z; Kennell, J; Magwene, PM; Dietrich, FS; McCusker, JH
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