Fear of falling and postural reactivity in patients with glaucoma.
PURPOSE: To investigate the relationship between postural metrics obtained by dynamic visual stimulation in a virtual reality environment and the presence of fear of falling in glaucoma patients. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 35 glaucoma patients and 26 controls that underwent evaluation of postural balance by a force platform during presentation of static and dynamic visual stimuli with head-mounted goggles (Oculus Rift). In dynamic condition, a peripheral translational stimulus was used to induce vection and assess postural reactivity. Standard deviations of torque moments (SDTM) were calculated as indicative of postural stability. Fear of falling was assessed by a standardized questionnaire. The relationship between a summary score of fear of falling and postural metrics was investigated using linear regression models, adjusting for potentially confounding factors. RESULTS: Subjects with glaucoma reported greater fear of falling compared to controls (-0.21 vs. 0.27; P = 0.039). In glaucoma patients, postural metrics during dynamic visual stimulus were more associated with fear of falling (R2 = 18.8%; P = 0.001) than static (R2 = 3.0%; P = 0.005) and dark field (R2 = 5.7%; P = 0.007) conditions. In the univariable model, fear of falling was not significantly associated with binocular standard perimetry mean sensitivity (P = 0.855). In the multivariable model, each 1 Nm larger SDTM in anteroposterior direction during dynamic stimulus was associated with a worsening of 0.42 units in the fear of falling questionnaire score (P = 0.001). CONCLUSION: In glaucoma patients, postural reactivity to a dynamic visual stimulus using a virtual reality environment was more strongly associated with fear of falling than visual field testing and traditional balance assessment.
Daga, FB; Diniz-Filho, A; Boer, ER; Gracitelli, CPB; Abe, RY; Medeiros, FA
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