Strategies to improve early diagnosis in glaucoma.
Early diagnosis and treatment of glaucoma is important to reduce the risk of progressive and irreversible visual loss. The key to diagnosis is recognition of morphological changes to the optic nerve head and retinal nerve fiber layer, but in some patients, functional abnormalities are detected first. This review describes recent innovations with the potential to improve the early detection of glaucoma. Developments in imaging include novel optic nerve head metrics such as Bruch's membrane opening-minimum rim width, enhanced ability to quantify inner layers of the glaucomatous macula, and ability to image deep optic nerve head structures, including the lamina cribrosa. Developments in detection of early glaucomatous functional loss include novel perimetric tests using frequency-doubling technology and flicker-defined form stimuli. Methods to combine results of structural and functional assessments are also presented that may improve early detection of glaucoma.
Tatham, AJ; Medeiros, FA; Zangwill, LM; Weinreb, RN
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