Deep Retinal Layer Microvasculature Dropout Detected by the Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Glaucoma.
PURPOSE:To investigate factors associated with dropout of the parapapillary deep retinal layer microvasculature assessed by optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) in glaucomatous eyes. DESIGN:Cross-sectional study. PARTICIPANTS:Seventy-one eyes from 71 primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) patients with β-zone parapapillary atrophy (βPPA) enrolled in the Diagnostic Innovations in Glaucoma Study. METHODS:Parapapillary deep-layer microvasculature dropout was defined as a complete loss of the microvasculature located within the deep retinal layer of the βPPA from OCTA-derived optic nerve head vessel density maps by standardized qualitative assessment. Circumpapillary vessel density (cpVD) within the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) also was calculated using OCTA. Choroidal thickness and presence of focal lamina cribrosa (LC) defects were determined using swept-source optical coherence tomography. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:Presence of parapapillary deep-layer microvasculature dropout. Parameters including age, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, axial length, intraocular pressure, disc hemorrhage, cpVD, visual field (VF) mean deviation (MD), focal LC defects βPPA area, and choroidal thickness were analyzed. RESULTS:Parapapillary deep-layer microvasculature dropout was detected in 37 POAG eyes (52.1%). Eyes with microvasculature dropout had a higher prevalence of LC defects (70.3% vs. 32.4%), lower cpVD (52.7% vs. 58.8%), worse VF MD (-9.06 dB vs. -3.83 dB), thinner total choroidal thickness (126.5 μm vs. 169.1 μm), longer axial length (24.7 mm vs. 24.0 mm), larger βPPA (1.2 mm2 vs. 0.76 mm2), and lower diastolic blood pressure (74.7 mmHg vs. 81.7 mmHg) than those without dropout (P < 0.05, respectively). In the multivariate logistic regression analysis, higher prevalence of focal LC defects (odds ratio [OR], 6.27; P = 0.012), reduced cpVD (OR, 1.27; P = 0.002), worse VF MD (OR, 1.27; P = 0.001), thinner choroidal thickness (OR, 1.02; P = 0.014), and lower diastolic blood pressure (OR, 1.16; P = 0.003) were associated significantly with the dropout. CONCLUSIONS:Systemic and ocular factors including focal LC defects more advanced glaucoma, reduced RNFL vessel density, thinner choroidal thickness, and lower diastolic blood pressure were factors associated with the parapapillary deep-layer microvasculature dropout in glaucomatous eyes. Longitudinal studies are required to elucidate the temporal relationship between parapapillary deep-layer microvasculature dropout and systemic and ocular factors.
Suh, MH; Zangwill, LM; Manalastas, PIC; Belghith, A; Yarmohammadi, A; Medeiros, FA; Diniz-Filho, A; Saunders, LJ; Weinreb, RN
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