Fast Visual Field Progression Is Associated with Depressive Symptoms in Patients with Glaucoma.
PURPOSE: To evaluate the association between the rates of progressive visual field loss and the occurrence of depressive symptoms in patients with glaucoma followed over time. DESIGN: Prospective observational cohort study. PARTICIPANTS: The study included 204 eyes of 102 patients with glaucomatous visual field defects on standard automated perimetry (SAP). METHODS: All patients had Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) questionnaires and visual field tests obtained over a mean follow-up time of 2.2±0.6 years. Change in depressive symptoms was assessed by calculating the difference between GDS scores at the last follow-up visit from those at baseline. Rates of visual field loss were assessed by SAP. An integrated binocular visual field was estimated from the monocular SAP tests, and rates of change in mean sensitivity (MS) over time were obtained from linear mixed models. Regression models were used to investigate the association between progressive visual field loss and changes in depressive symptoms, adjusting for potentially confounding clinical and socioeconomic variables. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The association between rates of change in binocular SAP MS and change in GDS questionnaire scores. RESULTS: There was a significant correlation between change in the GDS scores during follow-up and change in binocular SAP sensitivity. Each 1 decibel (dB)/year change in binocular SAP MS was associated with a change of 2.0 units in the GDS scores during the follow-up period (P = 0.025). In a multivariable model adjusting for baseline disease severity, change in visual acuity, age, gender, race, Montreal Cognitive Assessment score, education, income, and comorbidity index, each 1 dB/year change in binocular SAP MS was associated with a change of 3.0 units in the GDS score (P = 0.019). CONCLUSIONS: Faster visual field progression was associated with the occurrence of depressive symptoms in patients with glaucoma.
Diniz-Filho, A; Abe, RY; Cho, HJ; Baig, S; Gracitelli, CPB; Medeiros, FA
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