Delivered Dose Distribution Visualized Directly With Onboard kV-CBCT: Proof of Principle.
PURPOSE: To demonstrate proof of principle of visualizing delivered 3-dimensional (3D) dose distribution using kilovoltage (kv) cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) mounted onboard a linear accelerator. We apply this technique as a unique end-to-end verification of multifocal radiosurgery where the coincidence of radiation and imaging systems is quantified comprehensively at all targets. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Dosimeters (9.5-cm diameter N-isopropylacrylamide) were prepared according to standard procedures at one facility and shipped to a second (remote) facility for irradiation. A 4-arc volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) multifocal radiosurgery plan was prepared to deliver 20 Gy with 6-MV photons to 6 targets (1-cm diameter). A dosimeter was aligned via CBCT and irradiated, followed by 3 CBCT scans acquired immediately, with total time between pre-CBCT and final CBCT <30 minutes. Image processing included background subtraction and low-pass filters. A dose-volume structure was created per target with the same volume as the planned prescription dose volume, and their spatial agreement was quantified using volume centroid and the Jaccard index. For comparison, 5 diagnostic computed tomography (CT) scans were also acquired after >24 hours with the same spatial analysis applied; comparison with planned doses after absolute dose calibration also was conducted. RESULTS: Regions of high dose were clearly visualized in the average CBCT with a contrast-to-noise ratio of 1.7 ± 0.7, which increased to 5.8 ± 0.5 after image processing, and 11.9 ± 3.7 for average diagnostic CT. Centroids of prescription isodose volumes agreed with the root mean square difference of 1.1 mm (range, 0.8-1.7 mm) for CBCT and 0.7 mm (0.4-0.8 mm) for diagnostic CT. The dose was proportional to density above 10 to 12 Gy with a 3D gamma pass rate of 94.0% and 99.5% using 5% for 1-mm and 3% for 2-mm criteria, respectively (threshold = 15 Gy, using global dose criteria). CONCLUSIONS: This work demonstrates for the first time the potential to visualize in 3D delivered dose using onboard kV-CBCT (0.5 × 0.5 × 1 mm3 voxel size) immediately after irradiation with a sufficient contrast-to-noise ratio to measure radiation and imaging system coincidence to within 2 mm.
Adamson, J; Carroll, J; Trager, M; Yoon, SW; Kodra, J; Maynard, E; Hilts, M; Oldham, M; Jirasek, A
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