Integrated Treatment for Smoking Cessation, Anxiety, and Depressed Mood in People Living With HIV: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

Journal Article (Journal Article)


Among people living with HIV, cigarette smoking rates are higher than among the general population, and anxiety, depression, and their disorders are common and associated with smoking and poorer outcomes during cessation. This study evaluated the efficacy of an integrated smoking cessation intervention, developed to target anxiety, depression, and smoking cessation concurrently among people living with HIV.


Smokers living with HIV who reported at least moderate motivation to quit smoking were randomized into a novel 9-week integrated intervention (QUIT), consisting of 1 psychoeducation (prerandomization) session and 9 weekly 1-hour sessions of cognitive behavioral therapy for smoking cessation and anxiety/depression plus nicotine replacement therapy, or a 9-week enhanced standard smoking intervention (ETAU), consisting of 1 psychoeducation session (prerandomization) and 4 brief weekly check-in sessions plus nicotine replacement therapy. All were instructed to make a quit attempt at week 6.


Seventy-two participants were enrolled, and 53 were randomized. 41/53 participants completed the active treatment phase of the study. 7-day point-prevalence abstinence, verified with expired carbon monoxide, was significantly higher among those in the integrated intervention than those in the enhanced standard intervention both end-of-treatment {[MQUIT = 59%, METAU = 9%; b = 5.60, 95% confidence interval: (2.64 to 8.56), t(332) = 3.72, P < 0.001]} and 6-months post-quit date {[MQUIT = 46%, METAU = 5%; b = 7.69, 95% confidence interval: (4.60 to 10.78), t(332) = 4.90, P < 0.001]}. Consideration of patterns of missingness did not alter the significance of these findings.


The integrated intervention was associated with substantially higher short-term and long-term abstinence rates than the enhanced standard intervention. These data provide promising initial evidence supporting the benefits of an integrated anxiety-depression/smoking cessation program specifically tailored for people living with HIV.

Full Text

Duke Authors

Cited Authors

  • O╩╝Cleirigh, C; Zvolensky, MJ; Smits, JAJ; Labbe, AK; Coleman, JN; Wilner, JG; Stanton, AM; Gonzalez, A; Garey, L; Regenauer, KS; Rosenfield, D

Published Date

  • October 2018

Published In

Volume / Issue

  • 79 / 2

Start / End Page

  • 261 - 268

PubMed ID

  • 30212438

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 1944-7884

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

  • 1525-4135

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.1097/qai.0000000000001787


  • eng