U.S. air quality management: local, regional and global approaches.
The purpose of this article is to review approaches to air quality management (AQM) in the United States. To characterize AQM in the United States, four examples that addressed local, regional, and global scale air pollution are described. These examples include: (1) the Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAPs) program, (2) National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) program, (3) "Cap & Trade" programs, and (4) U.S. global pollution control efforts. These four examples were chosen because each presents a different approach to AQM. This was not intended to be a comprehensive description of U.S. AQM programs, but rather representative of selected examples that highlight the themes of this program. Some general principles that are illustrated in the article and are considered important characteristics of U.S. AQM are: Ensure open access to information and transparency in decision making. Develop and sustain a well-trained workforce. Facilitate training, networking, and technology transfer among air quality managers. Integrate planning and coordination of efforts across jurisdictions (across federal, state, and local agencies). Educate and encourage participation of stakeholders. Balance of societal benefits and costs. Apply innovative approaches, where possible. Fund research to improve the scientific basis for problem identification and effective AQM strategy development.
Cote, I; Samet, J; Vandenberg, JJ
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