Surgical Repair of Abdominal Aortic and Renal Artery Aneurysms in Takayasu's Arteritis.
Takayasu's arteritis is a large vessel vasculitis that can be a challenging diagnosis to make and has a varied clinical presentation. Management largely depends on affected vessel disease severity and individual patient considerations. The diagnosis must be considered in a young patient with large vessel aneurysms. We present a case of a 30 year-old woman of Pacific Islander descent who presented to the Tripler Army medical Center Vascular Surgery Department in Honolulu, Hawai'i seeking repair of her abdominal aortic and renal artery aneurysms prior to conception. A 30 year-old Pacific Islander woman with a history of a saccular abdominal aortic aneurysm and renal artery aneurysms presented to our clinic seeking vascular surgery consultation prior to a planned pregnancy. She had a renal artery stent placed at an outside institution for hypertension. She met the diagnosis of Takayasu's arteritis by Sharma's criteria. Physical exam was significant for a palpable, pulsatile, abdominal mass and CT angiography revealed a saccular irregular-appearing infra-renal abdominal aortic aneurysm, extending to the aortic bifurcation, with a maximum diameter of 3.3 cm. A right renal artery aneurysm was also identified proximally, contiguous with the aorta, with a maximal transverse diameter of 1.7 cm. The patient underwent a supraceliac bypass to the right renal artery with a 7 mm Dacron graft, as well as excision of the right renal artery aneurysm. The abdominal aortic aneurysm was replaced using a Hemashield Dacron bifurcated 14 mm x 7 mm bypass graft. Intraoperative measurements of the renal artery aneurysm were 1.5 x 1.5 cm and the saccular appearing distal abdominal aortic aneurysm measured 3.6 x 3.3 cm. The patient was discharged from the hospital 7 days post-operatively. At 1-year follow up, CT scan of the abdominal aorta revealed the repair was without any evidence of aneurysm formation, anastomotic pseudoaneurysm formation, or areas of stenosis. She has remained normotensive with a normal serum creatinine 18 months after her repair. She has since delivered her second child. It is rare for Takayasu's arteritis to present with aneurysmal disease. It is much more common to present with stenosis or occlusion. It has yet to be proven that Takayasu's truly has a higher incidence in those of Asian descent. Takayasu's can be a difficult diagnosis to make but can be aided with the use of Sharma's criteria. Our particular patient posed unique considerations on the effects of the physiology of pregnancy on her aneurysms and repair. Managing the active phases of disease is imperative, and though medical management is first line, surgical intervention may be necessary. Surgical intervention should be performed in a quiescent period of disease if possible given that biological inflammation at the time of intervention increases the complication rate. Repair of aneurysmal disease in a young female should also be considered prior to pregnancy.
Wetstein, PJ; Clark, ME; Cafasso, DE; Golarz, SR; Ayubi, FS; Kellicut, DC
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