High-Density Lipoprotein Particle Subfractions in Heart Failure With Preserved or Reduced Ejection Fraction.
BACKGROUND: Circulating high-density lipoprotein particle (HDL-P) subfractions impact atherogenesis, inflammation, and endothelial function, all of which are implicated in the pathobiology of heart failure (HF). OBJECTIVES: The authors sought to identify key differences in plasma HDL-P subfractions between patients with HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) and HF with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) to determine their prognostic utility. METHODS: Patients with HFrEF (n = 782), HFpEF (n = 1,004), and no HF (n = 4,742) were identified in the CATHGEN (Catheterization Genetics) biorepository of sequential patients undergoing cardiac catheterization. Nuclear magnetic resonance-based lipoprotein profiling was performed on frozen fasting plasma obtained at catheterization. The authors used multivariable analysis of covariance to compare high-density lipoprotein particle (HDL-P) subfractions across groups, and Cox proportional hazards modeling to determine associations between HDL-P subfractions and time to death or major adverse cardiac events. RESULTS: Mean HDL-P size was greater in HFrEF than HFpEF, both of which were greater than in no HF (all 2-way p < 0.0001). By contrast, concentrations of small HDL-P and total HDL-P were lesser in HFrEF than HFpEF, which were both lesser than no HF (all 2-way p ≤ 0.0002). In both HFrEF and HFpEF, total HDL-P and small HDL-P were inversely associated with time to adverse events. These findings persisted after adjustment for 14 clinical covariates (including high-density lipoprotein cholesterol content, coronary artery disease, and the inflammatory biomarker GlycA), and in sensitivity analyses featuring alternate left ventricular ejection fraction definitions, or stricter inclusion criteria with diastolic dysfunction or left ventricular end-diastolic pressure thresholds. CONCLUSIONS: In the largest analysis of HDL-P subfractions in HF to date, derangements in HDL-P subfractions were identified that were more severe in HFrEF than HFpEF and were independently associated with adverse outcomes. These data may help refine risk assessment and provide new insights into the complex interaction of HDL and HF pathophysiology.
Hunter, WG; McGarrah, RW; Kelly, JP; Khouri, MG; Craig, DM; Haynes, C; Felker, GM; Hernandez, AF; Velazquez, EJ; Kraus, WE; Shah, SH
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