Prevalence, Risk Factors, and Pathophysiology of Dysglycemia among People Living with HIV in Sub-Saharan Africa.
Objective: To review available literature on the prevalence, risk factors, pathophysiology, and clinical outcomes of dysglycemia among people living with HIV (PLHIV) in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Methods: Database search on PUBMED for eligible studies describing the prevalence, risk factors, pathophysiology, or clinical outcomes of dysglycemia in SSA PLHIV. Results: Prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) and pre-DM among SSA PLHIV ranged from 1% to 26% and 19% to 47%, respectively, in 15 identified studies. Older age and an elevated body mass index (BMI) were common risk factors for dysglycemia. Risk factors potentially more specific to PLHIV in SSA included exposure to older-generation thymidine analogues or protease inhibitors, malnutrition at ART initiation, a failure to gain fat mass on treatment, and elevated serum lipids. There is evidence of higher nephropathy and neuropathy rates among PLHIV in SSA with comorbid DM compared to HIV-negative individuals with DM. Conclusion: There is a need for longitudinal studies to enhance understanding of the risk factors for dysglycemia among PLHIV in SSA, further research into optimal therapies to reduce pre-DM progression to DM among SSA PLHIV, and studies of the burden and phenotype of diabetic complications and other health outcomes among PLHIV with comorbid DM in SSA.
Njuguna, B; Kiplagat, J; Bloomfield, GS; Pastakia, SD; Vedanthan, R; Koethe, JR
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