Scalable Manufacturing of Enteric Encapsulation Systems for Site-Specific Oral Insulin Delivery.
Oral drug delivery is a more favored mode of administration because of its ease of administration, high patient compliance, and low healthcare costs. However, no oral protein formulations are commercially available currently due to hostile gastrointestinal (GI) barriers resulting in insignificant oral bioavailability of macromolecular drugs. Herein, we used insulin as a model protein drug; insulin-loaded N-(2-hydroxy)-propyl-3-trimethylammonium chloride modified chitosan (HTCC)/sodium tripolyphosphate (TPP) nanocomplex (NC) as a nanocore was further encapsulated into enteric Eudragit L100-55 material, through a two-step flash nanocomplexation (FNC) process in a reliable and scalable manner, forming our NC-in-Eudragit composite particles (NE). Particle size and surface properties of our optimized NE were tailored to protect the loaded insulin from acidic degradation in the hostile stomach environment and to achieve intestinal site-specific drug release as well as the improvement of oral delivery efficiency of insulin. In addition, the oral administration of the optimized NE to type 1 diabetic rats could induce a very significant hypoglycemic effect with a relative oral bioavailability of 13.3%. Our results demonstrated that enteric encapsulation of nanotherapeutics using a FNC apparatus could cause drug formulations to possess better size controllability, batch-mode reproducibility, and homogeneous surface coating and then significantly enhance their oral bioavailability of insulin, indicating its great potential for clinical translation of oral protein therapeutics.
Sun, L; Liu, Z; Tian, H; Le, Z; Liu, L; Leong, KW; Mao, H-Q; Chen, Y
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