Pre-discharge prognostic factors of physical function among older adults with hip fracture surgery: a systematic review.
INTRODUCTION: To identify, organize, and assess the evidence level of pre-discharge prognostic factors of physical function beyond discharge after hip fracture surgery. METHODS: We performed a systematic search of four databases (PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, PsycINFO) for longitudinal studies of prognostic factors of physical function at ≥ 1 month among older adults ≥ 50 years old with surgically treated hip fracture, complemented with hand-searching. Two reviewers independently screened papers for inclusion and assessed the quality of all the included papers using the Quality in Prognosis Studies (QUIPS) tool. We assigned the evidence level for each prognostic factor based on consistency in findings and study quality. RESULTS: From 98 papers that met our inclusion criteria, we identified 107 pre-discharge prognostic factors and organized them into the following seven categories: demographic, physical, cognitive, psychosocial, socioeconomic, injury-related, and process of care. Potentially modifiable factors with strong or moderate evidence of an association included total length of stay, physical function at discharge, and grip strength. Factors with strong or moderate evidence of no association included gender, fracture type, and time to surgery. Factors with limited, conflicting, or inconclusive evidence included body-mass index, psychological resilience, depression, and anxiety. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings highlight potentially modifiable prognostic factors that could be targeted and non-modifiable prognostic factors that could be used to identify patients who may benefit from more intensive intervention or to advise patients on their expectations on recovery. Examining the efficacies of existing interventions targeting these prognostic factors would inform future studies and whether any of such interventions could be incorporated into clinical practice.
Lim, KK; Matchar, DB; Chong, JL; Yeo, W; Howe, TS; Koh, JSB
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