Pilot Trial of a Combined Cognitive Processing Therapy and Smoking Cessation Treatment.
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and smoking are often comorbid. Combining PTSD and smoking cessation treatments could increase access to each treatment and could provide improved rates of smoking cessation through reductions in PTSD and depressive symptoms. PARTICIPANTS: Participants were veterans with current PTSD who smoked cigarettes and were willing to initiate treatment for both problems. METHOD: We conducted a randomized pilot trial (n = 40) to explore feasibility and estimate effect sizes of a treatment combining trauma-focused Cognitive Processing Therapy (CPT) with smoking cessation counseling and pharmacotherapy, relative to the same smoking cessation treatment without CPT. RESULTS: Rates of bioverified 7-day point prevalence smoking abstinence at the end of treatment or at 6-month follow-up were similar across treatments. Relative to the comparison, the combined CPT and smoking cessation treatment were associated with moderate-to-large effect sizes at end of treatment for reductions in PTSD symptoms, Cohen's d = 0.718, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.078-1.358, that decreased by the 6-month follow-up, Cohen's d = 0.306, 95% CI = -0.334 to 0.946; and large reductions in depressive symptoms that were maintained to the 6-month follow-up, Cohen's d = 1.007, 95% CI = 0.367-1.647. CONCLUSIONS: This pilot trial did not detect a difference in smoking cessation when combining CPT to smoking cessation treatment, relative to smoking cessation treatment without CPT. However, results suggest that combining CPT and smoking cessation treatment was associated with both reductions of psychiatric symptoms along with smoking abstinence rates similar to previous smoking cessation trials in veterans with PTSD.
Dedert, EA; Resick, PA; Dennis, PA; Wilson, SM; Moore, SD; Beckham, JC
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