Unveiling coherently driven hyperpolarization dynamics in signal amplification by reversible exchange.
Signal amplification by reversible exchange (SABRE) is an efficient method to hyperpolarize spin-1/2 nuclei and affords signals that are orders of magnitude larger than those obtained by thermal spin polarization. Direct polarization transfer to heteronuclei such as 13
C or 15
N has been optimized at static microTesla fields or using coherence transfer at high field, and relies on steady state exchange with the polarization transfer catalyst dictated by chemical kinetics. Here we demonstrate that pulsing the excitation field induces complex coherent polarization transfer dynamics, but in fact pulsing with a roughly 1% duty cycle on resonance produces more magnetization than constantly being on resonance. We develop a Monte Carlo simulation approach to unravel the coherent polarization dynamics, show that existing SABRE approaches are quite inefficient in use of para-hydrogen order, and present improved sequences for efficient hyperpolarization.
Lindale, JR; Eriksson, SL; Tanner, CPN; Zhou, Z; Colell, JFP; Zhang, G; Bae, J; Chekmenev, EY; Theis, T; Warren, WS
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