The Hippo Pathway Effector TAZ Regulates Ferroptosis in Renal Cell Carcinoma.
Despite recent advances, the poor outcomes in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) suggest novel therapeutics are needed. Ferroptosis is a form of regulated cell death, which may have therapeutic potential toward RCC; however, much remains unknown about the determinants of ferroptosis susceptibility. We found that ferroptosis susceptibility is highly influenced by cell density and confluency. Because cell density regulates the Hippo-YAP/TAZ pathway, we investigated the roles of the Hippo pathway effectors in ferroptosis. TAZ is abundantly expressed in RCC and undergoes density-dependent nuclear or cytosolic translocation. TAZ removal confers ferroptosis resistance, whereas overexpression of TAZS89A sensitizes cells to ferroptosis. Furthermore, TAZ regulates the expression of Epithelial Membrane Protein 1 (EMP1), which, in turn, induces the expression of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) Oxidase 4 (NOX4), a renal-enriched reactive oxygen species (ROS)-generating enzyme essential for ferroptosis. These findings reveal that cell density-regulated ferroptosis is mediated by TAZ through the regulation of EMP1-NOX4, suggesting its therapeutic potential for RCC and other TAZ-activated tumors.
Yang, W-H; Ding, C-KC; Sun, T; Rupprecht, G; Lin, C-C; Hsu, D; Chi, J-T
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