TRP channels and osmoregulation: TRPV4-mediated signaling
© 2011 Nova Science Publishers, Inc. All rights reserved. In signal transduction of metazoan cells, ion channels of the family of transient receptor potential (TRP) have been identified to respond to diverse external and internal stimuli, amongst them osmotic stimuli. This chapter will highlight the first osmo-receptor channel in vertebrates, the TRPV4 channel, initially named vanilloid-receptor related osmotically activated channel (VR-OAC) or OTRPC4. In a striking example of evolutionary conservation of function, mammalian TRPV4 has been found to rescue osmo- and mechano-sensory deficits of the TRPV mutant osm-9 in Caenorhabditis elegans, despite not more than 26% orthology of the respective proteins. In this chapter, recent findings pertaining to TRPV4's function in endothelia, in airways and the alveolar unit of the lung, in intestinal sensory innervation and skeletal structure and function are reviewed, namely transduction of mechanical shear stress, maintenance of alveolar integrity, receptor-operated calcium signaling in ciliated bronchial epithelia, intestinal mechanosensation of noxious stimuli, sensitized by activation of the proteinase-activated receptor 2 (PAR2), a chondroprotective role in chondrocytes, and TRPV4 gain-offunction mutations in humans with hereditary skeletal dysplasia.
- TRP Channels in Health and Disease: Implications for Diagnosis and Therapy
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International Standard Book Number 13 (ISBN-13)