Dual-source evaporation of silver bismuth iodide films for planar junction solar cells
© 2019 The Royal Society of Chemistry. Non-toxic and air-stable silver bismuth iodide semiconductors are promising light absorber candidates for photovoltaic applications owing to a suitable band gap for multi- or single-junction solar cells. Recently, solution-based film fabrication approaches for several silver bismuth iodide stoichiometries have been investigated. The current work reports on a facile and reproducible two-step coevaporation/annealing approach to deposit compact and pinhole-free films of AgBi 2 I 7 , AgBiI 4 and Ag 2 BiI 5 . X-ray diffraction (XRD) in combination with scanning electron microscopy (SEM)/energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) analysis reveals formation of pure cubic (Fd3m) phase AgBi 2 I 7 , cubic (Fd3m) or rhombohedra (R3m) phase AgBiI 4 , each with >3 μm average grain size, or the rhombohedral phase (R3m) Ag 2 BiI 5 with >200 nm average grain size. A phase transition from rhombohedral to cubic structure is investigated via temperature-dependent X-ray diffraction (TD-XRD). Planar-junction photovoltaic (PV) devices are prepared based on the coevaporated rhombohedral AgBiI 4 films, with titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) and poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) as electron- and hole-transport layers, respectively. The best-performing device exhibited a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of as high as 0.9% with open-circuit voltage (V OC ) > 0.8 V in the reverse scan direction (with significant hysteresis).
Khazaee, M; Sardashti, K; Chung, CC; Sun, JP; Zhou, H; Bergmann, E; Dunlap-Shohl, WA; Han, Q; Hill, IG; Jones, JL; Lupascu, DC; Mitzi, DB
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