Rural-urban differences in health behaviors and outcomes among older, overweight, long-term cancer survivors in the RENEW randomized control trial.
Rural cancer survivors (RCS) have poorer health outcomes and face multiple challenges-older age, and limited transportation, education, income, and healthcare access. Yet, RCS are understudied. The Reach-out to ENhancE Wellness(RENEW) trial, a home-based, diet and exercise intervention among 641 breast, prostate, and colorectal cancer survivors addressed many of these challenges.
We examined whether rural and urban participants differed in their response to the RENEW intervention (e.g., physical functioning, quality-of-life, intakes of fruits and vegetables (F&V) and saturated fat, body mass index(BMI), physical activity, and adverse events).
Rural versus urban survivors report significantly more favorable mean (SE) changes in physical functioning [- 0.66 (1.47) v - 1.71 (1.00)], physical health [+ 0.14 (0.71) v - 0.74 (0.50)], and fewer adverse events [1.58 (0.08) v 1.64 (0.06)]. Rural versus urban survivors reported smaller increases in F&Vs [+ 1.47 (0.23) v + 1.56(0.16); p = 0.018], and lower percentages achieved goal behavior for endurance exercise and intakes of F&Vs and saturated fat.
The RENEW intervention reduced declines in physical health and functioning among RCS to a significantly greater extent than for urban cancer survivors. All survivors significantly improved intakes of F&V and saturated fat, and endurance exercise; however, lower percentages of rural versus urban survivors met goal suggesting that more intensive interventions may be needed for RCS.
Gray, MS; Judd, SE; Sloane, R; Snyder, DC; Miller, PE; Demark-Wahnefried, W
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