How Arthroscope Orientation Affects Performance: Arthroscopy in the Perspective of the Viewer and Arthroscopy Opposite of the Viewer.
BACKGROUND: Elements of competency-based training are being incorporated into surgical training. The primary objective of this study was to determine how the orientation of the arthroscope and the instruments relative to the standing position of the surgeon affects basic arthroscopic performance. The secondary objective was to determine how arthroscopic level of training affects performance. METHODS: Participants from a single academic institution were recruited and divided by level of training into 2 groups: novice and advanced. The Fundamentals of Arthroscopic Surgery Training (FAST) Workstation (Sawbones) was used in this study. Performance on the ring transfer module was evaluated based on the total number of ring transfers that were completed and the errors that were made in timed sessions. All participants performed the task with the arthroscope facing away from (position A) and facing toward (position B) their standing position. Two trials were completed for each position, followed by a survey. RESULTS: Fifty-seven subjects participated in this study. Overall, position A showed 2.7 times the amount of transfers compared with position B (p < 0.001). The advanced group had 1.6 times more transfers in position A than the novice group (p = 0.007), and there was no significant difference in transfers between training level in position B. The advanced group had 3.6 times more transfers in position A compared with position B (p < 0.001), while the novice group had 2.0 times more transfers in position A than in position B (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Performing an arthroscopic simulator task with the arthroscope directed toward the operator was found to be more difficult. An understanding of how the orientation of the operator, the arthroscope, and the instruments can strongly influence performance may be important for the primary surgeon, trainees, or assistants who may be standing opposite the arthroscope, and to optimize training to overcome this discrepancy.
Wahl, EP; Coughlin, RP; Mickelson, DT; Green, CL; Garrigues, GE
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