Primary Prevention of Heart Failure in Women.
The incidence of heart failure (HF) is increasing, particularly among women, and constitutes a rapidly growing public health problem. The primary prevention of HF in women should involve targeted, sex-specific strategies to increase awareness, promote a heart healthy lifestyle, and improve treatments that optimally control the risk factors for HF with reduced ejection fraction and HF with preserved ejection fraction. Epidemiological and pathophysiological differences in both HF subtypes strongly suggest that sex-specific preventive strategies and risk factor reduction may be particularly beneficial. However, significant gaps in sex-specific knowledge exist and are impeding preventive efforts. To overcome these limitations, women need to be adequately represented in HF research, sex differences must be prospectively investigated, and effective sex-specific interventions should be incorporated into clinical practice guidelines. This review summarizes the existing evidence that supports the primary prevention of HF in women and identifies potential strategies that are most likely to be effective in reducing the burden of HF among women.
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