gSG6-P1 salivary biomarker discriminates micro-geographical heterogeneity of human exposure to Anopheles bites in low and seasonal malaria areas.


Journal Article

Over the past decade, a sharp decline of malaria burden has been observed in several countries. Consequently, the conventional entomological methods have become insufficiently sensitive and probably under-estimate micro-geographical heterogeneity of exposure and subsequent risk of malaria transmission. In this study, we investigated whether the human antibody (Ab) response to Anopheles salivary gSG6-P1 peptide, known as a biomarker of Anopheles exposure, could be a sensitive and reliable tool for discriminating human exposure to Anopheles bites in area of low and seasonal malaria transmission.A multi-disciplinary survey was performed in Northern Senegal where An. gambiae s.l. is the main malaria vector. Human IgG Ab response to gSG6-P1 salivary peptide was compared according to the season and villages in children from five villages in the middle Senegal River valley, known as a low malaria transmission area.IgG levels to gSG6-P1 varied considerably according to the villages, discriminating the heterogeneity of Anopheles exposure between villages. Significant increase of IgG levels to gSG6-P1 was observed during the peak of exposure to Anopheles bites, and decreased immediately after the end of the exposure season. In addition, differences in the season-dependent specific IgG levels between villages were observed after the implementation of Long-Lasting Insecticidal Nets by The National Malaria Control Program in this area.The gSG6-P1 salivary peptide seems to be a reliable tool to discriminate the micro-geographical heterogeneity of human exposure to Anopheles bites in areas of very low and seasonal malaria transmission. A biomarker such as this could also be used to monitor and evaluate the possible heterogeneous effectiveness of operational vector control programs in low-exposure areas.

Full Text

Duke Authors

Cited Authors

  • Sagna, AB; Sarr, JB; Gaayeb, L; Drame, PM; Ndiath, MO; Senghor, S; Sow, CS; Poinsignon, A; Seck, M; Hermann, E; Schacht, A-M; Faye, N; Sokhna, C; Remoue, F; Riveau, G

Published Date

  • March 15, 2013

Published In

Volume / Issue

  • 6 /

Start / End Page

  • 68 -

PubMed ID

  • 23497646

Pubmed Central ID

  • 23497646

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 1756-3305

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

  • 1756-3305

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.1186/1756-3305-6-68


  • eng