NRG Oncology/RTOG 0438: A Phase 1 Trial of Highly Conformal Radiation Therapy for Liver Metastases.
PURPOSE: This study aimed to determine the feasibility and maximally tolerated dose of hypofractionated, conformal radiation therapy (RT) in patients with liver metastases. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Nonsurgical patients with ≤5 liver metastases (sum of maximal diameter of all lesions ≤8 cm) were included in the study. There were 4 dose levels: 35 Gy, 40 Gy (starting level), 45 Gy, and 50 Gy, in 10 fractions. The clinical target volume included metastases identified on contrast computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging with a 5-mm margin within the liver. The planning target volume margin ranged from 4 to 30 mm, depending on breathing motion. Dose-limiting toxicities were defined as RT-related grade ≥4 hepatic or gastrointestinal toxicities or thrombocytopenia occurring within 90 days of the start of RT. RESULTS: A total of 26 patients with metastases from colorectal (8 patients), breast (7 patients) and other malignancies (11 patients) were enrolled between November 2005 and December 2010. Twenty-three patients were evaluable (8, 7, and 8 on the 40, 45, and 50 Gy dose levels, respectively). Two patients assigned to 50 Gy received 35 Gy owing to normal tissue limits, so 2 additional patients were treated to 50 Gy. There were no dose-limiting toxicities on any of the dose levels. On the 45 Gy dose level, 1 patient developed reversible grade 3 enteritis (37 days from RT start) and diarrhea (22 days); another patient developed grade 3 lymphopenia (23 days). At the 50 Gy dose level, 1 patient had grade 3 hyperglycemia (74 days), and another patient developed grade 3 lymphopenia (13 days), colonic hemorrhage (325 days), and colonic gastrointestinal obstruction (325 days). With a potential median follow-up of 66.1 months (range, 34.6-89.0 months), no other late toxicities were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Treatment of liver metastases with 50 Gy in 10 fractions was feasible and safe in a multi-institutional setting.
Dawson, LA; Winter, KA; Katz, AW; Schell, MC; Brierley, J; Chen, Y; Kopek, N; Crane, CH; Willett, CG
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