Antibody-Dependent Cellular Phagocytosis in Antiviral Immune Responses.
Antiviral activities of antibodies may either be dependent only on interactions between the antibody and cognate antigen, as in binding and neutralization of an infectious virion, or instead may require interactions between antibody-antigen immune complexes and immunoproteins or Fc receptor expressing immune effector cells. These Fc receptor-dependent antibody functions provide a direct link between the innate and adaptive immune systems by combining the potent antiviral activity of innate effector cells with the diversity and specificity of the adaptive humoral response. The Fc receptor-dependent function of antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis (ADCP) provides mechanisms for clearance of virus and virus-infected cells, as well as for stimulation of downstream adaptive immune responses by facilitating antigen presentation, or by stimulating the secretion of inflammatory mediators. In this review, we discuss the properties of Fc receptors, antibodies, and effector cells that influence ADCP. We also provide and interpret evidence from studies that support a potential role for ADCP in either inhibiting or enhancing viral infection. Finally, we describe current approaches used to measure antiviral ADCP and discuss considerations for the translation of studies performed in animal models. We propose that additional investigation into the role of ADCP in protective viral responses, the specific virus epitopes targeted by ADCP antibodies, and the types of phagocytes and Fc receptors involved in ADCP at sites of virus infection will provide insight into strategies to successfully leverage this important immune response for improved antiviral immunity through rational vaccine design.
Tay, MZ; Wiehe, K; Pollara, J
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