Meridional overturning circulation and the associated heat and freshwater transports observed by the OSNAP (Overturning in the Subpolar North Atlantic Program) Array from 2014 to 2016


An international effort, Overturning in the Subpolar North Atlantic Program (OSNAP), is a partnership among oceanographers from the US, UK, Germany, the Netherlands, Canada and China whose goal is to measure and understand what drives the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (MOC) and its variability. OSNAP is consisted of 53 moorings that stretch from Labrador to Greenland to Scotland, providing a continuous record of the full water column, trans-basin transports of mass, heat (MHT) and freshwater (MFT) in the subpolar North Atlantic (50-60 N, 55-5 W). The first 21 months of data (August 2014 - April 2016) from the full OSNAP array has been used to produce the first time series of these key variables along with gridded cross-sectional property fields at OSNAP. All data are freely available from Contact information for this dataset: Feili Li (

Data Access

Duke Authors

Cited Authors

  • Lozier, MS; Li, F; Bacon, S; Johns, WE; Cunningham, SA; Fischer, J; Holliday, NP; Houpert, L; Rayner, D; Le Bras, IA; Greenan, BJW; Houk, A; de Steur, L; Mackay, N; de Jong, MF; Koman, G; Ramsey, AL; Torres, DJ; Oltmanns, M; Johnson, C; Straneo, F; Bower, AS; Pickart, RS; Gary, SF; Inall, ME; deYoung, B; Karstensen, J; Lin, X; Yashayaev, I; Zhao, J; Bahr, F

Published Date

  • January 15, 2019

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.7924/r4z60gf0f