Role of T-cell activation in salt-sensitive hypertension.
The contributions of T lymphocytes to the pathogenesis of salt-sensitive hypertension has been well established. Under hypertensive stimuli, naive T cells develop into different subsets, including Th1, Th2, Th17, Treg, and cytotoxic CD8+ T cells, depending on the surrounding microenviroment in organs. Distinct subsets of T cells may play totally different roles in tissue damage and hypertension. The underlying mechanisms by which hypertensive stimuli activate naive T cells involve many events and different organs, such as neoantigen presentation by dendritic cells, high salt concentration, and the milieu of oxidative stress in the kidney and vasculature. Infiltrating and activated T subsets in injured organs, in turn, exert considerable impacts on tissue dysfunction, including sodium retention in the kidney, vascular stiffness, and remodeling in the vasculature. Therefore, a thorough knowledge of T-cell actions in hypertension may provide novel insights into the development of new therapeutic strategies for patients with hypertension.
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