Defining Usage and Clinical Outcomes Following Perioperative Fresh Frozen Plasma and Platelet Administration in Spine Surgery Patients.
STUDY DESIGN: This was a retrospective study. OBJECTIVES: The main objectives of this study were to characterize the utilization of fresh frozen plasma (FFP) and platelets in spine surgery and the clinical outcomes following their administration. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Blood component transfusion is often a crucial therapy during spine surgery. Little is known about the association between transfusion with FFP and/or platelets and perioperative morbidity in patients undergoing spine surgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS: At a single large tertiary medical center, the surgical billing database was retrospectively queried for patients undergoing spinal surgery from 2008 to 2015. A univariate analysis compared patient characteristics for those who received FFP and/or platelets perioperatively and those who did not. To determine independent predictors of FFP and platelet administration and independent predictors of perioperative complications, both univariate and multivariate analyses were used. RESULTS: In total, 6931 patients met inclusion criteria. One thousand seven (14.5%) patients received perioperative FFP transfusion and 432 (6.2%) received platelets. In multivariate analysis, Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) ≥4, preoperative hemoglobin <12 g/dL, preoperative international normalized ratio (INR) ≥1.7, higher estimated blood loss, and receipt of packed red blood cell or platelet transfusion were associated with perioperative FFP administration (all P≤0.001). More than half of all patients received FFP with an INR trigger of <1.7. Those who received perioperative FFP were more likely to experience infection, increased length of stay, and ischemic, respiratory, thrombotic, and renal complications (all P<0.0001). Perioperative FFP [odds ratio (OR): 2.43], platelet transfusion (OR: 1.81), American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) grade 3 or 4 (OR: 1.84), CCI≥4 (OR: 1.75), and receipt of packed red blood cells (OR: 1.73) were independent predictors of experiencing any complication (all P≤0.008). CONCLUSIONS: The majority of patients were given FFP with a liberal INR trigger of >1.7. Perioperative FFP and platelet administration are independent predictors of perioperative complications following spine surgery.
Purvis, TE; Wang, TY; Sankey, EW; Frank, SM; Goodwin, CR; Sciubba, DM
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