Microglial activation in an amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-like model caused by Ranbp2 loss and nucleocytoplasmic transport impairment in retinal ganglion neurons.
Nucleocytoplasmic transport is dysregulated in sporadic and familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and retinal ganglion neurons (RGNs) are purportedly involved in ALS. The Ran-binding protein 2 (Ranbp2) controls rate-limiting steps of nucleocytoplasmic transport. Mice with Ranbp2 loss in Thy1+-motoneurons develop cardinal ALS-like motor traits, but the impairments in RGNs and the degree of dysfunctional consonance between RGNs and motoneurons caused by Ranbp2 loss are unknown. This will help to understand the role of nucleocytoplasmic transport in the differential vulnerability of neuronal cell types to ALS and to uncover non-motor endophenotypes with pathognomonic signs of ALS. Here, we ascertain Ranbp2's function and endophenotypes in RGNs of an ALS-like mouse model lacking Ranbp2 in motoneurons and RGNs. Thy1+-RGNs lacking Ranbp2 shared with motoneurons the dysregulation of nucleocytoplasmic transport. RGN abnormalities were comprised morphologically by soma hypertrophy and optic nerve axonopathy and physiologically by a delay of the visual pathway's evoked potentials. Whole-transcriptome analysis showed restricted transcriptional changes in optic nerves that were distinct from those found in sciatic nerves. Specifically, the level and nucleocytoplasmic partition of the anti-apoptotic and novel substrate of Ranbp2, Pttg1/securin, were dysregulated. Further, acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1, which modulates de novo synthesis of fatty acids and T-cell immunity, showed the highest up-regulation (35-fold). This effect was reflected by the activation of ramified CD11b+ and CD45+-microglia, increase of F4\80+-microglia and a shift from pseudopodial/lamellipodial to amoeboidal F4\80+-microglia intermingled between RGNs of naive mice. Further, there was the intracellular sequestration in RGNs of metalloproteinase-28, which regulates macrophage recruitment and polarization in inflammation. Hence, Ranbp2 genetic insults in RGNs and motoneurons trigger distinct paracrine signaling likely by the dysregulation of nucleocytoplasmic transport of neuronal-type selective substrates. Immune-modulators underpinning RGN-to-microglial signaling are regulated by Ranbp2, and this neuronal-glial system manifests endophenotypes that are likely useful in the prognosis and diagnosis of motoneuron diseases, such as ALS.
Cho, K-I; Yoon, D; Yu, M; Peachey, NS; Ferreira, PA
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