Epidemiology and Mechanisms of Resistance of Extensively Drug Resistant Gram-Negative Bacteria.
Antibiotic resistance has increased markedly in gram-negative bacteria over the last two decades, and in many cases has been associated with increased mortality and healthcare costs. The adoption of genotyping and next generation whole genome sequencing of large sets of clinical bacterial isolates has greatly expanded our understanding of how antibiotic resistance develops and transmits among bacteria and between patients. Diverse mechanisms of resistance, including antibiotic degradation, antibiotic target modification, and modulation of permeability through the bacterial membrane have been demonstrated. These fundamental insights into the mechanisms of gram-negative antibiotic resistance have influenced the development of novel antibiotics and treatment practices in highly resistant infections. Here, we review the mechanisms and global epidemiology of antibiotic resistance in some of the most clinically important resistance phenotypes, including carbapenem resistant Enterobacteriaceae, extensively drug resistant (XDR) Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and XDR Acinetobacter baumannii. Understanding the resistance mechanisms and epidemiology of these pathogens is critical for the development of novel antibacterials and for individual treatment decisions, which often involve alternatives to β-lactam antibiotics.
Eichenberger, EM; Thaden, JT
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