Factors Associated with Water Service Continuity for the Rural Populations of Bangladesh, Pakistan, Ethiopia, and Mozambique.
Access to continuous water supply is key for improving health and economic outcomes in rural areas of low- and middle-income countries, but the factors associated with continuous water access in these areas have not been well-characterized. We surveyed 4786 households for evidence of technical, financial, institutional, social, and environmental predictors of rural water service continuity (WSC), defined as the percentage of the year that water is available from a source. Multiple imputed fractional logistic regression models that account for the survey design were used to assess operational risks to WSC for piped supply, tube wells, boreholes, springs, dug wells, and surface water for the rural populations of Bangladesh, Pakistan, Ethiopia, and Mozambique. Multivariable regressions indicate that households using multiple water sources were associated with lower WSC in Bangladesh, Pakistan, and Mozambique. However, the possibility must be considered that households may use more than one water source because services are intermittent. Water scarcity and drought were largely unassociated with WSC, suggesting that service interruptions may not be primarily due to physical water resource constraints. Consistent findings across countries may have broader relevance for meeting established targets for service availability as well as human health.
DuChanois, RM; Liddle, ES; Fenner, RA; Jeuland, M; Evans, B; Cumming, O; Zaman, RU; Mujica-Pereira, AV; Ross, I; Gribble, MO; Brown, J
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