Rationale and design of the Randomized Trial to Prevent Vascular Events in HIV (REPRIEVE).
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is more frequent among people with HIV (PWH) and may relate to traditional and nontraditional factors, including inflammation and immune activation. A critical need exists to develop effective strategies to prevent CVD in this population. METHODS: The Randomized Trial to Prevent Vascular Events in HIV (REPRIEVE) (A5332) is a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of a statin strategy for the primary prevention of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) in PWH with low to moderate traditional risk. At least 7,500 PWH, 40-75 years of age, on stable antiretroviral therapy, will be randomized to pitavastatin calcium (4 mg/d) or identical placebo and followed for up to 8 years. Participants are enrolled based on the 2013 American College of Cardiology (ACC)/American Heart Association (AHA) atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk score and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) level with a goal to identify a low- to moderate-risk population who might benefit from a pharmacologic CVD prevention strategy. Potential participants with a risk score ≤ 15% were eligible based on decreasing LDL-C thresholds for increasing risk score >7.5% (LDL-C <190 mg/dL for risk score <7.5%, LDL-C <160 mg/dL for risk score 7.6%-10%, and LDL-C<130 mg/dL for risk score 10.1%-15%). The primary objective is to determine effects on a composite end point of MACE. Formal and independent adjudication of clinical events will occur using standardized criteria. Key secondary end points include effects on MACE components, all-cause mortality, specified non-CVD events, AIDS and non-AIDS events, and safety. RESULTS: To date, REPRIEVE has enrolled >7,500 participants at approximately 120 sites across 11 countries, generating a diverse and representative population of PWH to investigate the primary objective of the trial. CONCLUSIONS: REPRIEVE is the first trial investigating a primary CVD prevention strategy in PWH. REPRIEVE will inform the field of the efficacy and safety of a statin strategy among HIV-infected participants on antiretroviral therapy and provide critical information on CVD mechanisms and non-CVD events in PWH.
Grinspoon, SK; Fitch, KV; Overton, ET; Fichtenbaum, CJ; Zanni, MV; Aberg, JA; Malvestutto, C; Lu, MT; Currier, JS; Sponseller, CA; Waclawiw, M; Alston-Smith, B; Cooper-Arnold, K; Klingman, KL; Desvigne-Nickens, P; Hoffmann, U; Ribaudo, HJ; Douglas, PS; REPRIEVE Investigators,
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