Carotid stenting and endarterectomy and contralateral carotid occlusion.
BACKGROUND: The presence of contralateral carotid occlusion (CCO) has been controversial throughout the history of carotid intervention. Some studies cite a higher stroke risk in the setting of CCO, whereas other studies document no difference in stroke risk. We investigated the risk of stroke after intervention in the setting of CCO in a large, national, validated dataset. METHODS: Data were obtained from the 2011-2014 American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Initiative Project files using targeted carotid endarterectomy (CEA), carotid angioplasty, and carotid artery stenting (CAS) data. Patient and procedural characteristics, and 30-day postoperative outcomes were compared using Pearson χ2 tests for categorical variables and Wilcoxon rank-sum tests for continuous variables. Logistic regression was used for multivariable analysis. The primary outcome measure was the stroke rate, with a secondary outcome of major adverse cardiovascular events. RESULTS: During the study period, 11,948 CEA and 422 CAS procedures were available for study, with significantly fewer CEA (4.73% of all CEA) than CAS (9.95%; P < .0001) occurring in the setting of CCO. CAS was associated with more severe degree of stenosis than CEA (P = .045). Multivariable logistic regression showed that stroke after procedures was higher in patients with CCO than without CCO (odds ratio, 1.73; 95% confidence interval, 1.08-2.76; P = .02), but specific procedure (CEA vs CAS) was not associated with stroke while controlling for confounders. However, when evaluating our secondary composite outcome, CCO was not associated with the outcome while controlling for confounders. CONCLUSIONS: There is currently a bias that CCO confers a higher risk on patients undergoing carotid procedures and this notion is manifest in the proportion of CEA and CAS procedures done in the setting of CCO. Our study observes that CCO provides only a minor influence on periprocedural stroke risk and that other factors are more closely tied to outcomes of CEA and CAS.
Turley, RS; Freischlag, K; Truong, T; Benrashid, E; Kuchibahtla, M; Shortell, CK; Mureebe, L
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