NMR metabolomic analysis of skeletal muscle, heart, and liver of hatchling loggerhead sea turtles (caretta caretta) experimentally exposed to crude oil and/or corexit
© 2019 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. We used nuclear magnetic spectroscopy (NMR) to evaluate the metabolic impacts of crude oil, Corexit 5900A, a dispersant, and a crude oil Corexit 5900A mixture exposure on skeletal muscle, heart, and liver physiology of hatchling loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta). Tissue samples were obtained from 22 seven-day-old hatchlings after a four day cutaneous exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of crude oil, Corexit 5900A, a combination of crude oil and Corexit 9500A, or a seawater control. We identified 38 metabolites in the aqueous extracts of the liver, and 30 metabolites in both the skeletal and heart muscle aqueous extracts, including organic acids/osmolytes, energy compounds, amino acids, ketone bodies, nucleosides, and nucleotides. Skeletal muscle lactate, creatines, and taurine concentrations were significantly lower in hatchlings exposed to crude oil than in control hatchlings. Lactate, taurine, and cholines appeared to be the basis of some variation in hatchling heart samples, and liver inosine, uracil, and uridine appeared to be influenced by Corexit and crude oil exposure. Observed decreases in concentrations of lactate and creatines may reflect energy depletion in skeletal muscle of oil-exposed animals, while decreased taurine concentrations in these animals may reflect higher oxidative stress.
Bembenek-Bailey, SA; Niemuth, JN; McClellan-Green, PD; Godfrey, MH; Harms, CA; Gracz, H; Stoskopf, MK
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