Survival outcomes by high-risk human papillomavirus status in nonoropharyngeal head and neck squamous cell carcinomas: A propensity-scored analysis of the National Cancer Data Base.
BACKGROUND: The prognostic relevance of human papillomavirus (HPV) status in patients with nonoropharyngeal (OPX) squamous cell cancer (SCC) of the head and neck is controversial. In the current study, the authors evaluated the impact of high-risk HPV status on overall survival (OS) in patients with non-OPX SCC using a large database approach. METHODS: The National Cancer Data Base was queried to identify patients diagnosed from 2004 through 2014 with SCC of the OPX, hypopharynx (HPX), larynx, and oral cavity (OC) with known HPV status. Survival was estimated using Kaplan-Meier methods; distributions were compared using log-rank tests. Propensity score-matching and inverse probability of treatment weighing (IPTW) methods were used; cohorts were matched based on age, sex, Charlson-Deyo score, clinical American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) group stage, treatments received, and anatomic subsite. Propensity analyses were stratified by group stage of disease. RESULTS: A total of 24,740 patients diagnosed from 2010 through 2013 were analyzed: 1085 patients with HPX, 4804 with laryngeal, 4,018 with OC, and 14,833 with OPX SCC. The percentages of HPV-positive cases by disease site were 17.7% for HPX, 11% for larynx, 10.6% for OC, and 62.9% for OPX. HPV status was found to be prognostic in multiple unadjusted and propensity-adjusted non-OPX populations. HPV positivity was associated with superior OS in patients with HPX SCC with a hazard ratio (HR) of 0.61 (P < .001 by IPTW), in patients with AJCC stage III to IVB laryngeal SCC (HR, 0.79; P = .019 by IPTW), and in patients with AJCC stage III to IVB OC SCC (HR, 0.78; P = .03 by IPTW). CONCLUSIONS: Positive high-risk HPV status appears to be associated with longer OS in multiple populations of patients with non-OPX head and neck disease (HPX, locally advanced larynx, and OC). If prospectively validated, these findings have implications for risk stratification.
Tian, S; Switchenko, JM; Jhaveri, J; Cassidy, RJ; Ferris, MJ; Press, RH; Pfister, NT; Patel, MR; Saba, NF; McDonald, MW; Higgins, KA; Yu, DS; Curran, WJ; Gillespie, TW; Beitler, JJ
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