Heterogeneous translational landscape of the endoplasmic reticulum revealed by ribosome proximity labeling and transcriptome analysis.
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a nexus for mRNA localization and translation, and recent studies have demonstrated that ER-bound ribosomes also play a transcriptome-wide role in regulating proteome composition. The Sec61 translocon (SEC61) serves as the receptor for ribosomes that translate secretory/integral membrane protein-encoding mRNAs, but whether SEC61 also serves as a translation site for cytosolic protein-encoding mRNAs remains unknown. Here, using a BioID proximity-labeling approach in HEK293T Flp-In cell lines, we examined interactions between ER-resident proteins and ribosomes in vivo Using in vitro analyses, we further focused on bona fide ribosome interactors (i.e. SEC61) and ER proteins (ribophorin I, leucine-rich repeat-containing 59 (LRRC59), and SEC62) previously implicated in associating with ribosomes. We observed labeling of ER-bound ribosomes with the SEC61β and LRRC59 BioID reporters, comparatively modest labeling with the ribophorin I reporter, and no labeling with the SEC62 reporter. A biotin pulse-chase/subcellular fractionation approach to examine ribosome exchange at the SEC61β and LRRC59 sites revealed that, at steady state, ribosomes at these sites comprise both rapid- and slow-exchanging pools. Global translational initiation arrest elicited by the inhibitor harringtonine accelerated SEC61β reporter-labeled ribosome exchange. RNA-Seq analyses of the mRNAs associated with SEC61β- and LRRC59-labeled ribosomes revealed both site-enriched and shared mRNAs and further established that the ER has a transcriptome-wide role in regulating proteome composition. These results provide evidence that ribosomes interact with the ER membrane via multiple modes and suggest regulatory mechanisms that control global proteome composition via ER membrane-bound ribosomes.
Hoffman, AM; Chen, Q; Zheng, T; Nicchitta, CV
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