The Rise and Fall of High Temperatures During Ureteroscopic Holmium Laser Lithotripsy.
Introduction: Temperatures over 43°C-the threshold for cellular injury-may be achieved during ureteroscopic holmium laser lithotripsy. The time to reach and subsequently clear high temperatures at variable laser power settings and irrigation pressures has not been studied. Methods: A flexible or semirigid ureteroscope was placed within an 11/13 F ureteral access sheath inserted into a 250-mL saline bag simulating a normal-caliber ureter, renal pelvis reservoir, and antegrade irrigation flow. A thermocouple was placed adjacent to a 365 μm fiber fired for 45 seconds at 0.6 J/6 Hz, 0.8 J/8 Hz, 1 J/10 Hz, 1 J/20 Hz, and 0.2 J/80 Hz. Irrigation pressures of 200, 100, and 0 mm Hg were tested. Mean temperature changes were recorded with 6°C increase as a threshold for injury (as body temperature is 6°C below 43°C). Results: Semirigid scope: At 200 mm Hg no temperature changes >6°C were observed. At 100 mm Hg, changes >6°C occurred with 1 J/20 Hz within 1 second of activation and returned to ≤6°C within 1 second of cessation. At 0 mm Hg, changes >6°C occurred with all settings; within 1 second at power ≥10 W. Temperatures returned to ≤6°C within 5-10 seconds. Flexible scope: At 200 mm Hg, changes >6°C occurred at 1 J/10 Hz (15 seconds), 0.2 J/80 Hz (3 seconds), and 1 J/20 Hz (2 seconds). Temperatures returned within 6°C of baseline within 2 seconds. At 100 mm Hg, changes >6°C occurred in all but 0.6 J/6 Hz. Temperatures returned to ≤6°C in 5-10 seconds. At 0 mm Hg, all settings produced changes >6°C within 3 seconds, except 0.6 J/6 Hz (35 seconds). Temperatures returned to ≤6°C in under 10 seconds. Conclusions: High temperatures were achieved in our in vitro model in as little as 1 second at common irrigation pressures and laser settings, particularly with a flexible ureteroscope and power ≥10 W. However, with laser cessation, temperatures quickly returned to a safe level at each irrigation pressure.
Winship, B; Wollin, D; Carlos, E; Peters, C; Li, J; Terry, R; Boydston, K; Preminger, GM; Lipkin, ME
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