Use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and associated outcomes in children hospitalized for sepsis in the United States: A large population-based study.
OBJECTIVE: The American College of Critical Care Medicine recommends that children with persistent fluid, catecholamine, and hormone-resistant septic shock be considered for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) support. Current national estimates of ECMO use in hospitalized children with sepsis are unknown. We sought to examine the use of ECMO in these children and to examine the overall outcomes such as in-hospital mortality, length of stay (LOS), and hospitalization charges (HC). METHODS: A retrospective analysis of the National Inpatient Sample, which approximates a 20% stratified sample of all discharges from United States community hospitals, was performed. All children (≤ 17 years) who were hospitalized for sepsis between 2012 and 2014 were included. The associations between ECMO and outcomes were examined by multivariable linear and logistic regression models. RESULTS: A total of 62,310 children were included in the study. The mean age was 4.2 years. ECMO was provided to 415 of the children (0.67% of the cohort with sepsis). Comparative outcomes of sepsis in children who received ECMO versus those who did not included in-hospital mortality rate (41% vs 2.8%), mean HC ($749,370 vs $90,568) and mean LOS (28.8 vs 9.1 days). After adjusting for confounding factors, children receiving ECMO had higher odds of mortality (OR 11.15, 95% CI 6.57-18.92, p < 0.001), longer LOS (6.6 days longer, p = 0.0004), and higher HC ($510,523 higher, p < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Use of ECMO in children with sepsis is associated with considerable resource utilization but has 59% survival to discharge. Further studies are needed to examine the post discharge and neurocognitive outcomes in survivors.
Robb, K; Badheka, A; Wang, T; Rampa, S; Allareddy, V; Allareddy, V
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