Race/Ethnicity and Cardiovascular Outcomes in Adults With CKD: Findings From the CRIC (Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort) and Hispanic CRIC Studies.
BACKGROUND: Non-Hispanic blacks and Hispanics with end-stage renal disease have a lower risk for death than non-Hispanic whites, but data for racial/ethnic variation in cardiovascular outcomes for non-dialysis-dependent chronic kidney disease are limited. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective cohort. SETTING & PARTICIPANTS: 3,785 adults with entry estimated glomerular filtration rates of 20 to 70mL/min/1.73m(2) enrolled in the CRIC (Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort) Study. PREDICTORS: Race/ethnicity (non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, and Hispanic). OUTCOMES: Cardiovascular outcomes (atherosclerotic events [myocardial infarction, stroke, or peripheral arterial disease] and heart failure) and a composite of each cardiovascular outcome or all-cause death. MEASUREMENTS: Multivariable Cox proportional hazards. RESULTS: During a median follow-up of 6.6 years, we observed 506 atherosclerotic events, 551 heart failure events, and 692 deaths. In regression analyses, there were no significant differences in atherosclerotic events among the 3 racial/ethnic groups. In analyses stratified by clinical site, non-Hispanic blacks had a higher risk for heart failure events (HR, 1.59; 95% CI, 1.29-1.95), which became nonsignificant after adjustment for demographic factors and baseline kidney function. In contrast, Hispanics had similar risk for heart failure events as non-Hispanic whites. In analyses stratified by clinical site, compared with non-Hispanic whites, non-Hispanic blacks were at similar risk for atherosclerotic events or death. However, after further adjustment for cardiovascular risk factors, medications, and mineral metabolism markers, non-Hispanic blacks had 17% lower risk for the outcome (HR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.69-0.99) than non-Hispanic whites, whereas there was no significant association with Hispanic ethnicity. LIMITATIONS: Hispanics were largely recruited from a single center, and the study was underpowered to evaluate the association between Hispanic ethnicity and mortality. CONCLUSIONS: There were no significant racial/ethnic differences in adjusted risk for atherosclerotic or heart failure outcomes. Future research is needed to better explain the reduced risk for atherosclerotic events or death in non-Hispanic blacks compared with non-Hispanic whites.
Lash, JP; Ricardo, AC; Roy, J; Deo, R; Fischer, M; Flack, J; He, J; Keane, M; Lora, C; Ojo, A; Rahman, M; Steigerwalt, S; Tao, K; Wolf, M; Wright, JT; Go, AS; CRIC Study Investigators,
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