Vitamin D deficiency, inflammation, and albuminuria in chronic kidney disease: complex interactions.
OBJECTIVE: Vitamin D may promote cardiovascular health in general population and in chronic kidney disease (CKD) through inhibition of the renin-angiotensin system and anti-inflammatory effects. Although proteinuria is a marker of kidney and cardiovascular disease, few studies have examined vitamin D levels, inflammation, and proteinuria simultaneously in CKD. We evaluated the relationship between calcidiol (25D), calcitriol (1,25D), inflammation, and albuminuria in Study of Early Evaluation of Kidney Disease, a multicenter CKD cohort. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study was carried out. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 1,847 participants were studied, of which 387 were randomly selected for inflammatory biomarker assessment. PREDICTORS AND OUTCOMES: The primary predictors were 25D and 1,25D. The outcome was albuminuria (urine albumin to creatinine ratio [UACR]: >30 mg/g). RESULTS: Albuminuric patients were more likely to have decreased 25D and 1,25D levels and higher interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels compared with normoalbuminuric patients. The lowest tertiles of 25D and 1,25D were associated with 2 to 3 times increased odds of albuminuria compared with the highest tertiles when adjusted for age, gender, race, systolic blood pressure, and diabetes (OR for 25D: 3.0; 95% CI: 1.3 to 7.0; OR for 1,25D: 2.6; 95% CI: 1.7 to 3.9). In analogous linear regression models, 25D and 1,25D were significantly associated with log UACR (P < .0001, for both). In participants for whom inflammatory markers were measured, demographics-adjusted linear regression models that included IL-6 described attenuation of the relationship between 25D, 1,25D, and UACR. CONCLUSIONS: Low 25D and 1,25D levels are independently associated with albuminuria. IL-6 may be an important intermediary between vitamin D deficiency and albuminuria, or vitamin D deficiency may contribute to inflammation and subsequent albuminuria.
Isakova, T; Gutiérrez, OM; Patel, NM; Andress, DL; Wolf, M; Levin, A
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