Assessment of conservative dietary management as a method for normalization of 24-h urine pH in stone formers.
Low urine pH is a metabolic risk factor for stone formation. While medical therapy is typically prescribed (as urinary alkalinization), patients typically prefer dietary modifications. We aimed to assess capacity to alter urine pH with dietary management alone. We analyzed a retrospective cohort of stone formers seen between 2000 and 2015 with multiple 24-h urine collections (24hUC). Patients ≥ 18 years old with low urine pH (< 6.0) were included; those prescribed alkalinizing agents or thiazides were excluded. Demographic data, 24hUC parameters, and medications were abstracted. 24hUC was utilized to calculate gastrointestinal alkali absorption (GIAA). The primary outcome was urine pH ≥ 6.0 on second 24hUC. Predictors were selected utilizing multivariable logistic regression. The database consisted of 2197 stone formers; 224 of these met inclusion criteria. On second 24hUC, 124 (55.4%) achieved a favorable pH ≥ 6.0. On univariable analysis, a second pH ≥ 6.0 was associated with high initial pH, low initial sulfate, younger age, increase in citrate/GIAA/urine volume, and decrease in ammonium (P < 0.02). On multivariable analysis, high initial pH (OR = 23.64, P < 0.001), high initial GIAA (OR = 1.03, P = 0.001), lower initial sulfate (OR = 0.95, P < 0.001), increase in urine volume (OR = 2.19, P = 0.001), increase in GIAA (OR = 8.6, P < 0.001), increase in citrate (OR = 2.7, P = 0.014), decrease in ammonium (OR = 0.18, P < 0.001), and younger age (OR = 0.97, P = 0.025) were associated with a second pH ≥ 6.0. The analysis demonstrated a corrected AUC of 0.853. These data suggest that certain dietary recommendations (increases in urine volume, citrate, GIAA, and decreased acid load) may normalize urine pH in a select group of patients. This may allow urologists to counsel patients with low urine pH on possibility of success with dietary modification alone.
Wollin, DA; Davis, LG; Winship, BB; Carlos, EC; Tom, WR; Asplin, JR; Kosinski, AS; Scales, CD; Ferrandino, MN; Preminger, GM; Lipkin, ME
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