Optimized Mucosal Modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara Prime/Soluble gp120 Boost HIV Vaccination Regimen Induces Antibody Responses Similar to Those of an Intramuscular Regimen.
The benefits of mucosal vaccines over injected vaccines are difficult to ascertain, since mucosally administered vaccines often induce serum antibody responses of lower magnitude than those induced by injected vaccines. This study aimed to determine if mucosal vaccination using a modified vaccinia virus Ankara expressing human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) gp120 (MVAgp120) prime and a HIV-1 gp120 protein boost could be optimized to induce serum antibody responses similar to those induced by an intramuscularly (i.m.) administered MVAgp120 prime/gp120 boost to allow comparison of an i.m. immunization regimen to a mucosal vaccination regimen for the ability to protect against a low-dose rectal simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) challenge. A 3-fold higher antigen dose was required for intranasal (i.n.) immunization with gp120 to induce serum anti-gp120 IgG responses not significantly different than those induced by i.m. immunization. gp120 fused to the adenovirus type 2 fiber binding domain (gp120-Ad2F), a mucosal targeting ligand, exhibited enhanced i.n. immunogenicity compared to gp120. MVAgp120 was more immunogenic after i.n. delivery than after gastric or rectal delivery. Using these optimized vaccines, an i.n. MVAgp120 prime/combined i.m. (gp120) and i.n. (gp120-Ad2F) boost regimen (i.n./i.m.-plus-i.n.) induced serum anti-gp120 antibody titers similar to those induced by the intramuscular prime/boost regimen (i.m./i.m.) in rabbits and nonhuman primates. Despite the induction of similar systemic anti-HIV-1 antibody responses, neither the i.m./i.m. nor the i.n./i.m.-plus-i.n. regimen protected against a repeated low-dose rectal SHIV challenge. These results demonstrate that immunization regimens utilizing the i.n. route are able to induce serum antigen-specific antibody responses similar to those induced by systemic immunization.IMPORTANCE Mucosal vaccination is proposed as a method of immunization able to induce protection against mucosal pathogens that is superior to protection provided by parenteral immunization. However, mucosal vaccination often induces serum antigen-specific immune responses of lower magnitude than those induced by parenteral immunization, making the comparison of mucosal and parenteral immunization difficult. We identified vaccine parameters that allowed an immunization regimen consisting of an i.n. prime followed by boosters administered by both i.n. and i.m. routes to induce serum antibody responses similar to those induced by i.m. prime/boost vaccination. Additional studies are needed to determine the potential benefit of mucosal immunization for HIV-1 and other mucosally transmitted pathogens.
Jones, DI; Pollara, JJ; Johnson-Weaver, BT; LaBranche, CC; Montefiori, DC; Pickup, DJ; Permar, SR; Abraham, SN; Maddaloni, M; Pascual, DW; Staats, HF
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