Medicaid Expansion and Breast Cancer Screening in Appalachia and Non-Appalachia, United States, BRFSS 2003 to 2015.
BACKGROUND: Prior data suggests that breast cancer screening rates are lower among women in the Appalachian region of the United States. This study examined the changes in breast cancer screening before and after the implementation of the Affordable Care Act Medicaid expansion, in Appalachia and non-Appalachia states. METHODS: Data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System between 2003 and 2015 were analyzed to evaluate changes in breast cancer screening in the past 2 years among US women aged 50-74 years. Multivariable adjusted logistic regression and generalized estimating equation models were utilized, adjusting for sociodemographic, socioeconomic, and health-care characteristics. Data were analyzed for 2 periods: 2003 to 2009 (pre-expansion) and 2011 to 2015 (post-expansion) comparing Appalachia and non-Appalachia states. RESULTS: The prevalence for of self-reported breast cancer screening in Appalachia and non-Appalachia states were 83% and 82% ( P < .001), respectively. In Appalachian states, breast cancer screening was marginally higher in non-expanded versus expanded states in both the pre-expansion (relative risk [RR]: 1.002, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.002-1.003) and post-expansion period (RR: 1.001, 95% CI: 1.001-1.002). In non-Appalachian states, screening was lower in non-expanded states versus expanded states in both the pre-expansion (RR: 0.98, 95% CI: 0.97-0.98) and post-expansion period (RR: 0.95, 95% CI: 0.95-0.96). There were modest 3% to 4% declines in breast cancer screening rates in the pos-texpansion period regardless of expansion and Appalachia status. CONCLUSIONS: Breast cancer screening rates were higher in Appalachia versus non-Appalachia US states and higher in expanded versus nonexpanded non-Appalachia states. There were modest declines in breast cancer screening rates in the post-expansion period regardless of expansion and Appalachia status, suggesting that more work may be needed to reduce administrative, logistical, and structural barriers to breast cancer screening services.
Valvi, N; Vin-Raviv, N; Akinyemiju, T
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