Growth Dynamics of Mammographic Calcifications: Differentiating Ductal Carcinoma in Situ from Benign Breast Disease.
Background Most ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) lesions are first detected on screening mammograms as calcifications. However, false-positive biopsy rates for calcifications range from 30% to 87%. Improved methods to differentiate benign from malignant calcifications are thus needed. Purpose To quantify the growth rates of DCIS and benign breast disease that manifest as mammographic calcifications. Materials and Methods All calcifications (n = 2359) for which a stereotactic biopsy was performed from 2008 through 2015 at Duke University Medical Center were retrospectively identified. Mammograms from all cases of DCIS (n = 404) were reviewed for calcifications that were visible on mammograms taken at least 6 months before biopsy. Women with at least one prior mammogram with visible calcifications were age- and race-matched 1:2 to women with a benign breast biopsy and calcifications visible on prior mammograms. The long axis of the calcifications was measured on all mammograms. Multivariable adjusted linear mixed-effects models estimated the association of calcification growth rates with patholo findings. Hierarchical clustering accounted for matching benign and DCIS groups. Results A total of 74 DCIS calcifications and 148 benign calcifications were included for final analysis. The median patient age was 62 years (interquartile range, 51-71 years). No significant difference in breast density (P > .05) or number of available mammograms (P > .05) was detected between groups. Calcifications associated with DCIS were larger than those associated with benign breast disease at biopsy (median, 10 mm vs 6 mm, respectively; P < .001). After adjustment, the relative annual increase in the long-axis length of DCIS calcifications was greater than that of benign breast calcifications (96% [95% confidence interval: 72%, 224%] vs 68% [95% confidence interval: 56%, 80%] per year, respectively; P < .001). Conclusion Ductal carcinoma in situ calcifications are more extensive at diagnosis and grow faster in extent than those associated with benign breast disease. The rate of calcification change may help to discriminate benign from malignant calcifications. © RSNA, 2019 Online supplemental material is available for this article.
Grimm, LJ; Miller, MM; Thomas, SM; Liu, Y; Lo, JY; Hwang, ES; Hyslop, T; Ryser, MD
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